The increased availability of treatment has not reduced the prevalence of mental disorders, suggesting a need for a greater emphasis on prevention. With chronic physical diseases, successful prevention efforts have focused on reducing the big risk factors. If this approach is applied to mental disorders, the big risk factors are adverse childhood experiences, which have major effects on most classes of mental disorder across the lifespan.
Many people identified as having common mental disorders in community surveys do not receive treatment. Modelling has suggested that closing
this “treatment gap” should reduce the population prevalence of those disorders. To evaluate the effects of reducing the treatment gap
in industrialized countries, data from 1990 to 2015 were reviewed from four English-speaking countries: Australia, Canada, England and the
US. These data show that the prevalence of mood and anxiety disorders and symptoms has not decreased, despite substantial increases in the
Systematic reviews have established that partner support protects against perinatal mood problems.
It is therefore a key target for interventions designed to prevent maternal and paternal depression and anxiety.
Nonetheless, the extant literature is yet to be translated into specific actions that parents can implement. Prevention
efforts aiming to facilitate reciprocal partner support within the couple dyad need to provide specific guidance on how

Noncommunicable diseases (NCDs) account for the largest burden of early mortality and are predicted to cost the
global community more than US $30 trillion over the next 20 years. Unhealthy dietary habits, in large part driven by
substantial changes to global food systems, are recognised as major contributors to many of the common NCDs,
including cardiovascular disease, cancer and diabetes. Recent evidence now indicates that unhealthy diets are also

Modelling studies suggest that less than 30% of the burden of mental disorders can be averted, even with optimal care and access to services. This points to the need to reduce the incidence of mental disorders, utilising evidence-based prevention strategies and policy action.


Mental health problems are prevalent and costly in working populations. Workplace interventions to address common mental health problems have evolved relatively independently along three main threads or disciplinary traditions: medicine, public health, and psychology. In this Debate piece, we argue that these three threads need to be integrated to optimise the prevention of mental health problems in working populations.


Depression is a major public health problem among working-age adults. The workplace is potentially
an important location for interventions aimed at preventing the development of depression, but to date, the
mental health impact of universal interventions in the workplace has been unclear.


This paper concerns future policy development and programs of research for the prevention of mental disorders
based on research emerging from fetal and early life programming. The current review offers an overview of
findings on pregnancy exposures such as maternal mental health, lifestyle factors, and potential teratogenic and
neurotoxic exposures on child outcomes. Outcomes of interest are common child and adolescent mental disorders
including hyperactive, behavioral and emotional disorders. This literature suggests that the preconception and


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